When 'Oumuamua sped past, astronomers focused on its strange, elongated shape.
Fuzzy Implications | Michał Baczyński | Springer
That was in part because they couldn't see any gas or dust that they could study to understand what the object was made of, Meech said. But the new interstellar comet is cocooned in gunk that telescopes can analyze. Their results will tell scientists whether the comet's home solar system matches ours in terms of whether the proportion of different chemicals follows the same basic recipe.
Astronomers are beginning to be able to analyze that proportion in other solar systems, but it's perhaps the equivalent of trying to reconstruct the precise taste of a well-spiced curry based on a friend's description of a long-ago meal. If the comet's recipe turns out to be different from our solar system's, the chemical analysis could be the single most significant research scientists conduct on the visitor, she said.
But there are plenty of other, more basic questions to ask as well.
Like, how big is it? Meech and her colleagues saw the comet's tail stretching 93, miles , kilometers into space. But it's much more difficult to estimate the size of the comet itself under all that fuzz enveloping it. The team has made a preliminary estimate that the object is between 1. That calculation relies on estimating the brightness of the comet in one image compared with the sky around it. Then Meech applied a model built on several assumptions, such as the idea that the comet reflects the same percent of light as our local comets do.
Any one of those premises could turn out to be incorrect as scientists learn more about the object. But Meech — and many of her colleagues — all need something to tell the people in charge of the host of instruments they want to commandeer to study the interstellar comet in order to begin answering all these questions. And thank goodness. Email Meghan Bartels at mbartels space. Follow us on Twitter Spacedotcom and on Facebook. Have a news tip, correction or comment? Let us know at community space. A second exposure of the newly identified comet captured by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in early September Meech, J.
Different examples of such long-range forces exist in the biological realm, especially those involving thermal fluctuations such as undulation forces originating from cell membrane undulation or steric polymer forces from for example pericellular glycosylated moieties 52 , By taking advantage of their distinct ability to diffuse faster in complex crowded media, soft NPs can be invaluable assets when used as drug carriers for example.
The results presented in this study echo the ever-increasing in vivo evidences showing that soft deformable NPs 16 , 57 have the unusual capacity to penetrate more deeply into soft porous tissues. The soft NP shrinkage in this study was attributed to the pressure from the long-range electrostatic interactions. Although electrostatic interactions are short-range in vivo, other long-range interactions in biological environment could generate similar pressures. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to the design of the NPs mechanical properties and deformability in order to control their biological fate.
Microgel synthesis was performed as previously reported 58 , SDS concentration 0. Upon completion, the NPs suspension was removed from the flask and allowed to cool at room temperature. NPs concentration within each batch was determined by freeze-drying 1. DLS data presented in Fig.
Using Malvern software cumulant analysis , the NP hydrodynamic radius R 0 H was obtained by identifying the peak of the intensity-weighted particle radius distribution. These parameters were adjusted to optimize the signal amplitude and to access particle dynamics over an adequate q range and time-scale for each NP. Images were recorded in glass capillaries Vitrocom, Canada of thickness 0. Videos were recorded at least five times at three different positions for each capillary. In some instances, the presence of a second decay in the autocorrelation function was observed at longer time, presumably due to larger aggregates or very slow relaxation of the gel.
For these specific measurements, we used a double generalized exponential model to extract the short-time process:. Agarose was dissolved in hot water using a common microwave oven. The stock solution was diluted accordingly to prepare agarose solutions of 0. Preliminary data were obtained during the cooling time to ensure that the gel was stabilized, and that the particles were not aggregating.
The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. Bianco, C. A 3-dimensional micro- and nanoparticle transport and filtration model MNM3D applied to the migration of carbon-based nanomaterials in porous media. Babakhani, P. Parameterization and prediction of nanoparticle transport in porous media: A reanalysis using artificial neural network. Water Resour. Goldberg, E.
Critical assessment of models for transport of engineered nanoparticles in saturated porous media. Liu, H. Application of nanotechnology in petroleum exploration and development. Exploration Dev.
Liu, Z. Nanoparticle transport in cellular blood flow. Computers Fluids , — Rabanel, J. Drug-loaded nanocarriers: passive targeting and crossing of biological barriers. Stirland, D. Park K. Adibnia, V.
Electroacoustic spectroscopy of nanoparticle-doped hydrogels. Macromolecules 47 , — Kang, K. Diffusion of spheres in isotropic and nematic networks of rods: Electrostatic interactions and hydrodynamic screening. Wang, J. The role of micelle size in tumor accumulation, penetration, and treatment. ACS Nano 9 , — Liu, X.
The Equivalence Relations Between Two Fuzzy Implications
Mixed-charge nanoparticles for long circulation, low reticuloendothelial system clearance, and high tumor accumulation. Raeesi, V. Improving nanoparticle diffusion through tumor collagen matrix by photo-thermal gold nanorods. Nanoscale 8 , — Yuan, Y.
Surface charge switchable nanoparticles based on zwitterionic polymer for enhanced drug delivery to tumor. Enhanced retention and cellular uptake of nanoparticles in tumors by controlling their aggregation behavior. ACS Nano 7 , — Pelaz, B. Diverse applications of nanomedicine.
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