One of the key outcomes of the TVPA was the creation of a special humanitarian visa for victims of trafficking known as the T visa. Not only do T visas offer a lifeline for noncitizen victims of trafficking, they are a crucial law enforcement tool; often the only way to build trafficking cases is with witness testimony. Few countries provide similar support to trafficking survivors. In late , the Trump administration announced that noncitizens who are denied a visa may be issued a notice to appear in immigration court and put into deportation proceedings.
Since then, I have spoken to dozens of lawyers, advocates, and survivors for whom the idea of applying for a T visa is fraught and uncertain, where it was once a comfort.
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Over the past year, the processing times for T visas have increased to nearly three years. Approval rates have decreased significantly. Lawyers I spoke to reported receiving consistent requests for more evidence from U. Citizenship and Immigration Services, which is often impossible for a survivor to provide, and denials based on crimes that applicants were forced to engage in by their traffickers. They also began being denied waivers for fees associated with the application. My clients are seen as immigrants first and survivors and victims second.
It is clearly written by an office deeply informed about the reality of trafficking in the United States and deeply concerned about helping victims.
But by maintaining a Tier 1 ranking for the United States, particularly while downgrading other countries for similar criticisms, the report could forfeit most of its potential impact on U. It also invites the Trump administration to continue its cruel anti-immigration policies to the detriment of trafficking victims. Trending Now Sponsored Links by Taboola. Big investors are starting to use a new metric to assess financial risk: rates of gender-based violence.
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Shrugs Washington helped start an epidemic of violence against women in Central America. September 23, , PM. Trending 1. China and Vietnam. Annotated Bibliography. Human trafficking is a global epidemic that that equates to modern-day slavery. It is estimated that as many as 27 million people around the world are victims of forced labor, bonded labor, and commercial sexual servitude at any given time, many of whom are women and children trafficked across international borders. Human trafficking is usually defined as, inter alia , forced sexual exploitation, involuntary servitude, or debt bondage.
Recently, multilateral organizations have ramped up efforts to combat trafficking by integrating anti-trafficking policies into discussions of other pressing matters. In the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute established the Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings to track organized crime activity in human trafficking and to assist member nations to develop effective criminal justice responses.
Despite the lofty goals in the preamble, the international community remains far removed from implementing an effective comprehensive international approach to combat human trafficking. The trafficking of persons is a growing epidemic that must be addressed and combated. However, to efficiently fight this global problem, the international community must understand the causes of human trafficking, the parties behind such trafficking, and the various methods countries are using to address the problem.
This research program aims to provide the international community with the background information necessary to adopt an efficient and successful global campaign against the trafficking of human beings. This paper seeks to understand the push and pull effects of human trafficking and to determine what may be the appropriate government practices to combat the problem. These four countries on both sides of the world are experiencing similar problems with human trafficking.
The World Day Against Trafficking in Persons | Council on Foreign Relations
Preliminarily, the push and pull causes of human trafficking between the countries appear to be quite similar with the more affluent countries, China and the United States as the receiving country. The United States and China with better economic opportunities are seeing an influx of trafficking victims into their country from their southern neighbors. However, the policies the countries choose to address their human trafficking problems are quite different.
The United States has a unilateral enforcement approach to stop human trafficking  whereas China has a bilateral approach in working with Vietnam to address the situation. Twenty thousand people are trafficked from Mexico into the United States each year,  and despite encouragement by the State Department to work together, there are little cooperative efforts between the two countries to combat trafficking.
In , Mexico had no specific laws prohibiting trafficking. The government uses federal laws to punish and then deport alien traffickers. In fiscal year , the Department of Homeland Security granted T nonimmigrant status to only victims and eligible family members of victims, a slight decline from a respective and in fiscal year ; these figures continue to represent a general decline compared to previous years.
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The startling reality is that even with T-visa applications and approvals, the vast majority of trafficking victims in the United States do not receive long-term immigration relief under the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act. In the past, the United States government rarely worked with Mexico towards a solution for human trafficking.
Instead, it chose to unilaterally deal with the trafficking situation within its country and to deport parties involved. This has not fixed the problem, and trafficking into the United States by way of Mexico continues. The second part of the research will examine the China-Vietnam trafficking situation. Human trafficking continues to plague these two countries.
Vietnamese authorities estimate during the s approximately 22, Vietnamese women and children have been trafficked into China for forced marriage and other elicit purposes. In May , government officials from both countries met in Vietnam to discuss a joint strategy to combat border trafficking.
Of course, these joint efforts have not been able to stop the trafficking problem, but they have resulted in several notable joint law enforcement stings and shutdowns of several human trafficking organizations. In September , Vietnam and China signed memoranda of understanding to strengthen cooperation on preventing and combating human trafficking. The two countries have worked together to punish the traffickers involved and to help the trafficking victims through their ordeal. Unlike the United States, China does not grant visa benefits to trafficking victims.
Instead, it participates in transfer and rehabilitation centers for victims and repatriates them back to Vietnam. Thirdly, the research will evaluate the current international efforts by the United Nations and other organizations to stop human trafficking. The objective of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of each method in reducing human trafficking and what the appropriate measures may be.
A comparison study of the human trafficking situation in China-Vietnam and United States-Mexico will provide a great contrast of international policies pursued by the countries. The research concludes that an effective method is a hybrid strategy combining tougher punitive measures for traffickers, greater protection, rights, and benefits for victims, and better government and law enforcement cooperation among origin, transit, and receiving countries.
GAOR, 55th Sess. I This is one of two protocols that was part of initial international efforts to combat human trafficking. It declares a need for comprehensive international approach and measures to prevent and punish traffickers and to protect victims. It requires each state to criminalize trafficking, protect victims, and exchange information and training. Through this source, we can understand the obligations of each signatory.