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Sister States, Enemy States
Anyone interested in Kentucky and Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article. Download all figures. Sign in. You could not be signed in. Sign In Forgot password? Don't have an account? Organization of American Historians members Sign in via society site. Sign in via your Institution Sign in. Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Short-term Access To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. There was, of course, the war between the Union and the Confederacy, but there was also fighting between the Union occupiers and the pro-Southern civilians they encountered.
Hostilities even existed between the Federal army and local Unionists in some areas, and there was conflict among some Union generals and among Confederate commanders in the region. Editors Kent T. Larry H. Whiteaker and W.
How important was Union control over Kentucky and Tennessee during the Civil War?
Calvin Dickinson are professors emeriti of history at Tennessee Tech University. All three scholars collaborated on the companion volume to Border Wars, Sister States, Enemy States: The Civil War in Kentucky and Tennessee, which examined the political, social, and economic aspects of the war.
He was checked at Franklin , and his army was virtually destroyed by George Thomas 's greatly superior forces at Nashville in December. Fear of subversion was widespread throughout the state. In West and Middle Tennessee it was fear of pro-Union activism, which was countered proactively by numerous local Committees of Safety and Vigilance from to They emerged as early as the Presidential election, and when the war began activists developed an aggressive program to detect and suppress Unionists.
The committees set up a spy system, intercepted mail, inspected luggage, forced the enlistment of men into the Confederate Army , confiscated private property, and whenever it seemed necessary lynched enemies of the Confederacy. The committees were disbanded by the Union Army when it took control in East Tennessee was a stronghold of Unionism; most slaves were house servants—luxuries—rather than the base of plantation operations.
The dominant mood strongly opposed secession.
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They petitioned the state legislature in Nashville , which denied their request to secede and sent Confederate troops under Felix Zollicoffer to occupy East Tennessee and prevent secession. The region thus came under Confederate control from to Nevertheless East Tennessee supplied significant numbers of troops to the Federal army. See also Nickajack. Many East Tennesseans engaged in guerrilla warfare against state authorities by burning bridges , cutting telegraph wires, and spying for the North.
Strong support for the Union challenged the Confederate commanders who controlled East Tennessee for most of the war.
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Generals Felix K. Zollicoffer , Edmund Kirby Smith , and Sam Jones oscillated between harsh measures and conciliatory gestures to gain support, but had little success whether they arrested hundreds of Unionist leaders or allowed men to escape the Confederate draft.
Union forces finally captured the region in Despite its name, the regiment consisted largely of men from Tennessee. Refugees poured into Nashville during the war, because jobs were plentiful in the depots, warehouses and hospitals serving the war effort, and furthermore the city was much safer place than the countryside. Unionists and Confederate sympathizers both flooded in, as did free blacks and escaped slaves, and businessmen from the North.
One of the largest operations was the Cumberland Iron Works, which the Confederate War Department tried and failed to protect. Union wartime regulations forced prostitutes to purchase licenses and pass medical exams, primarily to protect soldiers from venereal disease. Their trade was deregulated once military control ended. After the war, Tennessee adopted a constitutional amendment forbidding human property on February 22, ;   ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution on July 18, ; and was the first state readmitted to the Union on July 24, Because it ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, Tennessee was the only state that seceded from the Union that did not have a military governor during Reconstruction.
This did not placate those unhappy with the Confederate defeat. Many white Tennesseans resisted efforts to expand suffrage and other civil rights to the freedmen. For generations white Tennesseans had been raised to believe that slavery was justified. Some could not accept that their former slaves were now equal under the law.
When the state Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of African American suffrage in , the reaction became stronger.
The Nashville Republican Banner on January 4, , published an editorial calling for a revolutionary movement of white Southerners to unseat the one-party state rule imposed by the Republican Party and restore the legal inferiority of the region's black population. It has organized a government which is as complete a closed corporation as may be found; it has placed the black man over the white as the agent and prime-move of domination; it has constructed a system of machinery by which all free guarantees, privileges and opportunities are removed from the people The impossibility of casting a free vote in Tennessee short of a revolutionary movement The Banner urged its readers to ignore the presidential election and direct their energy into building "a local movement here at home" to end Republican rule.
Only a few African Americans served in the Tennessee legislature during Reconstruction, and not many more as state and city officers. However, the Nashville Banner may have been reacting to increased participation by African Americans on that city's council, where they held about one-third of the seats. To a lesser extent Tennesseans celebrate Unionist memories based in East Tennessee and among blacks. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the C. For the ships, see CSS Tennessee. For other uses, see Tennessee disambiguation. Proposed flag Great Seal — Bombardment and Capture of Fort Henry, Tenn.
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Brown's Berry. Postmaster Gen. John Henninger Reagan. Nathan Bedford Forrest. Leonidas Polk. Benjamin F. Alexander P. William B. John C. Henry S. Isham G. TN House of Rep. Robert H. Brigadier General John C. Brigadier General William H.
Brigadier General George Maney. Brigadier General Charles M. Brigadier General William Read Scurry.
Brigadier General Gideon J. Brigadier General Robert V. Brigadier General James A. Brigadier General Preston Smith. Brigadier General Thomas B. Brigadier General Lucius M. Brigadier General Marcus J. Brigadier General Felix Zollicoffer. Brigadier General Joseph B. Brigadier General Samuel Benton.