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A study on assessing and enhancing spirituality among elders living in residential homes in Hong Kong and Shanghai. Publication list:. Chan, L. Spirituality in Chinese context: A perspective from elders and their relatives in Hong Kong. Spirituality: Conceptualization and its implication in social work practice in the Chinese context. Lou , W. Conceptualizing the spirituality of Chinese older adults: A Delphi study.

Lou, W. Enhancing spiritual well-being among Chinese older adults: A self-help empowering approach. Hong Kong. Lou W. Q, Chan, L. Development and validation of a spirituality scale for Chinese elders: A mixed approach. Conceptualizing and assessing spirituality among Chinese elders: towards evidence-based practice.

Defining Wellness in Older Adulthood: Toward a Comprehensive Framework

Generation Review, 22 1 , Sprituality vitalizaer: Intervention Manual for Profressionals. The goal of this article was to review the non-biomedical constructs used in recent successful aging qualitative and quantitative research and to identify non-biological constructs that could be used in a model of successful aging that would include all elders, even those living with illness.

A scoping review 19 of recent successful aging literature published between and was performed. The search was restricted to peer-reviewed English-language articles that offered a model or, at minimum, an operational definition of successful aging.

To be included, the articles had to involve research with adults 40 years and older. Potentially relevant articles from the reference lists of identified publications were used if they met the inclusion criteria. All titles and abstracts from the search strategy were reviewed for eligibility.

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Caring for older people

Reference lists were also examined for relevant articles. Components of successful aging were identified and categorized. The participants were human beings and older adults, the article was published in the English language between and , successful aging was the central topic of the article, and a model or operational definition was provided. Articles were also excluded if, despite having the term successful aging in the title, there was no discussion of successful aging in the body of the article or no definition of successful aging.

Seventy-two articles resulted from this search. Abstracts were reviewed, and 35 articles met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-seven articles were excluded according to the exclusion criteria; the subject matter of excluded articles is shown in Figure 1. Twenty-nine percent of articles included participants aged 50 years or older.

Six percent of studies included participants older than 70 years. One article included participants who were 40 years and older.


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The oldest participants included were 90— years old. All the articles reviewed employed multidimensional models of successful aging. Non-biomedical constructs used in the included articles are reviewed and shown in Figure 2. Some of the articles included constructs that could also be considered outcome measures eg, self-rated successful aging, well-being, life satisfaction in their successful aging models. These constructs were not categorized as non-biomedical constructs here. Health protective behaviors eg, non-smoking, frequent exercise were also excluded from this discussion.

Figure 2 Components of successful aging articles included in scoping review. Engagement was the most frequently used construct. Sixty-three percent of articles reviewed included engagement in their successful aging models Figure 2. In the articles reviewed, engagement was expressed as active engagement, 20 — 22 caring engagement CE and productive engagement PE , 23 and social activity dimensions.

Using a bivariate logistic regression analysis, they found that increased age was significantly related to engagement with life. In fact, participants who were between 70 and 74 years were more engaged than those between 60 and 64 years odds ratio 0. Weir et al 20 suggest that it is important to note the changes in engagement over the lifespan. CE and PE is defined as support given to significant others eg, friends, family , and PE is represented by activities that contributed to others individuals such as family, organizations such as workplace or the community. Social activity was the third conceptualization of engagement used to explain successful aging.

Spirituality of Chinese Older Adults : Conceptualization, Assessment, and Intervention

Overall, using the biomedical criteria, successful aging was found in only 8. Hank 12 concluded that there was a lack of engagement among a large number of older adults with good health.

China works on solutions for elderly care

Community engagement is another component of successful aging. In the majority of the reviewed articles, engagement seemed to have a significant association with age, 20 and in some cases, could be used to discriminate between those aging successfully and those who were not. Optimism and positive attitude are similar psychological characteristics that involve the expectation that events will resolve with the best possible outcome.

Optimism and positive attitude have been associated with life satisfaction and have similar effects on individuals irrespective of socioeconomic status or physical health. A number of researchers have proposed that successful aging requires psychological resources to enable individuals to adapt in the face of the challenges created by illness, loss of loved ones, and changes in functional ability. Resilience is not just a psychological trait; it can also be considered as a process.

Resilience as a process is a compensatory response to adversity or risk. Aging brings many forms of adversity, including potential loss of loved ones, illness, and decline in functional abilities. In this study, 40 qualitative interviews with two individuals were used to explore resilience and successful aging among older adults living with dementia, a major source of adversity. The results indicated that resilience can be present among people living with dementia and that they can live meaningful lives. Harris 40 suggests that there is an:. Rather than considering successful aging as a consequence of perfect health, it could be considered a reflection, at least in part, of resilience in the face of the adversity that life presents — a far more obtainable goal for most older adults.

In the reviewed articles, successful agers exhibited resilience in the presence of physical and mental health challenges. Spirituality is not constrained by institutions or formal rituals.

Religion can be considered intrinsic eg, religion is for personal comfort and extrinsic eg, religion provides membership in a social group. Gerotranscendence involves a shift in perspective and the recognition that the task at hand is self-awareness and preparation for death. Gerotranscendence includes an acceptance of life as meaningful, purposeful, and coherent, as well as feelings of connection to earlier generations.

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Gerotranscendence is the ability to be positive as life is ending 61 and to take time for retrospection. Engagement in career has generally ended and the past is revisited. Gerotranscendence includes, but is not limited to, aspects of spirituality and has shown some predictive ability in successful aging research. The multidimensionality of successful aging is now acknowledged in the literature.

Spirituality of Chinese Older Adults : Conceptualization, Assessment, and Intervention

The goal of this article was to review recent literature on successful aging and identify the non-biomedical constructs most frequently employed. Like other reviews of successful aging constructs, 8 , 9 a majority of the articles included similar biomedical constructs in their models but were heterogeneous in terms of their non-biomedical constructs.

The limitations of this review included the restricted search criteria. Examining the various models built around specific perspectives eg, feminist or disease-related groups were beyond the scope of this article as was the inclusion of the terms healthy aging or aging well. The number of articles found would have been greater if we had included these perspectives and related terms such as aging well.

It is also important to recognize that the choice of both successful aging model and outcome measures profoundly impacts the results. Measurement tools selected in each research project reflected the models proposed within, and therefore, it is difficult to compare results from one study to another because each includes and measures different constructs.