Manual The Local Origins of Modern Society: Gloucestershire 1500-1800

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His brother was Bible translator William Tyndale, See Rollison, David. Routledge, , p. Google Books. Thomas , 21 September UTC Removed Joan Lawrence as wife, until further research has been completed to identify which of the children attached to this profile are sourced children of Edward Tyndale of Stinchcombe, Gloucestershire who died in His sooond wife was Joan, daughter of William Lawrence, of Withington, and widow of Gilos Blom6r, of Cowley, by whom he had several children.

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The local origins of modern society : Gloucestershire 1500-1800

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On 1 Jan at GMT Robin Wood wrote: Boydel and Brewer are the publishers, unless the publication is named this source is no use to researchers. Pl quote the source document.

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On 30 Dec at GMT Robin Wood wrote: I'll have another go at it later in the week but if anone can suggest where each individual fits pl shout. The Martyr cannot be placed lower down in the pedigree, nor be identified with William the brother of Thomas, of whose history I am able to give an outline. The coining staff at Soho consisted of 13 men, 27 women and 16 boys. The boys worked the machines which produced up to 30, coins per week, fn. It is not possible to give a detailed picture of the composition and occupational distribution of the labour force before At the time of the census, Birmingham's population consisted almost wholly of those engaged in 'trade, manufactures and handicrafts'.

Northfield had joined the parishes where industry predominated, nailing being the chief employment there. In Attwood thought that 10, people worked in the brass foundry trade but 30, in nailing in Birmingham and vicinity. In they accounted for one-sixth of the population. In a more detailed analysis becomes possible, at least for the borough of Birmingham. About 70, people were then gainfully occupied. No single employment predominated.

There were 3, brass founders and moulders, 2, buttonmakers and the like, other founders, glass manufacturers, 1, gun and pistolmakers, japanners and lacquerers, platers, and 1, jewellers, goldand silver-smiths and the like. Young workers under 20 years of age accounted for a quarter of the labour force in brass founding, glass, and japanning, and a third in buttonmaking.

Out of the 70, occupied persons, a quarter were females and just under a fifth were under 20 years of age - 8, boys and 5, girls.

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Much of this labour force, as we have seen, was well paid for its skill, but it was also difficult to retain. Birmingham was world famous and we hear of frequent attempts to bribe workers to go elsewhere. This nuisance partly accounted for the survival of the legislation against the emigration of artisans until , ineffective as it was. Women were used more extensively in Birmingham than anywhere except in Lancashire and not only in light occupations.

The effects of this system on the health of the population cannot be estimated here: from an industrial point of view cheap labour was indispensable. Sarcastically, he suggested that the employer should always keep a young wench in the works, and if he got her into trouble, pay a workman a few guineas to take the blame.

The Local Origins of Modern Society: Gloucestershire – Bóksalan

The children were in a pitiful state. Lady Shelburne, in , noticed them in the button factory, fn. In fact, the good citizens could not bear to see any little hands unemployed. Besides the use of workhouse children, fn. When Peel's proposals for the regulation of factories containing twenty or more persons under eighteen were published in , the chamber of commerce petitioned against them.

The chamber claimed to be unaware of abuses and contended that, if anything was wrong, the existing laws were enough to enable magistrates to deal with the evil. In particular various manufactories afforded 'various employments for children under ten years of age which did not require bodily exertions detrimental to health'. In any case, legislation would deprive their poor parents of their earnings. Many of the local processes were such that working hours could not be precisely regulated referring, presumably, to furnaces.

Equally little was thought of the educational clauses in the Bill-there would be little advantage from such instruction, especially if compulsory. Even where employers were considerate, the system of sub-contracting ensured that the children were effectively left without protection. Both male and female gangmasters engaged young assistants fn. Parents connived at the system.

Extensive evidence on this was provided by R. Grainger, appointed by the Children's Employment Commission to investigate trades in the Midlands and London. Some of Birmingham's better-known firms, such as Phipson's, the pinmakers in Broad Street, came out of these reports very badly. Crowded and close workrooms, filthy privies, women overseers striking with canes children who walked three miles to work and were at their task 12 or 14 hours a day for a wage of 1 s.

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Boulton and Watt took no one under thirteen and all their employees were literate. The health of adults also gave concern.

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  5. If one hears little in the middle of the 18th century about the diseases affecting the workers exposed to mercury, metal dust, and fumes, it is presumably because early death was too commonplace. But with the improvement in medical statistics and some increase in the expectation of life in some parts of the country, the appalling waste of the industrial areas gradually came to light.

    As early as , a local surgeon, W. Richardson, was writing a chemical treatise 'designed chiefly for the use of manufacturers', listing the characteristics of mercury, copper, lead, and arsenic, and pointing out the results of their use. Robert Bree, physician to the General Hospital, was concerning himself at the same time with the health of the industrial population and drew attention to fevers, the effect of smoke and the lack of resistance of undernourished bodies to a variety of industrial diseases.

    Wages often fell disastrously and poor law and charity could not supply the deficiency.

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    As chemical substances in use in various trades became more complex, the varieties of poisoning also increased. Only at Soho did Boulton's Mutual Assurance Society founded before afford some protection of workers with elaborate and generous sickness benefits. This was unique at the time and yet it was probably less needed at Soho than anywhere else in Birmingham.

    Owing to the waywardness of official classifications and to changes in the methods of recording the value of exported goods, it is difficult to give useful statistics relating to the growth of the market for Birmingham goods. Porter, in his Progress of the Nation , thought that Birmingham's rise in the world could best be presented by the weight and value of national exports of hardware and cutlery though that trade was shared with Sheffield , and of copper and brass manufactures.

    From these tables fn. For an explanation of these changes see A. Imlah, 'Real Values in British foreign trade, ', Jnl. There are gaps in the records and other reasons why it is not possible to give a comparative picture for each decade, but several features emerge clearly from these figures.

    First, although there is undoubted progress over the years, both trades suffered severe fluctuations. For hardware the lowest point came in 2, tons , the peak in 21, tons - more than eight times as much. In the case of brass and copper only 64, cwt. There were bad set-backs in the years in both trades and again in in the hardware and cutlery business but in copper and brass in Secondly, then, the peaks and troughs did not coincide in the two trades, and, if we consider the home markets as well as other branches of manufacture, the evening out of the totals is even greater.

    In the crown-glass trade, the main troughs in total production occurred in and , in exports in the years , and Less was paid per ton exported in spite of the fact that manufactures were becoming more complex all the time and, presumably, had undergone more processes in the conversion from raw material to finished article. This fall in prices is well documented in the case of some objects which were technically the same in and Charles Babbage, the mathematician, obtained these 'from the books of a highly respectable house in Birmingham'.

    Single roller gun locks had been 7 s. Iron-turned table spoons were down from 22 s.

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    6. Reductions up to 80 per cent. It is not possible to say in what order these falls in price occurred. The end of the war reduced costs at home and restrictions were lifted and this widened the market.